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1. Black - And - Gold Tanager E VU 1300 - 2400 Bangsia Melanochlamys

Black - And - Gold Tanager E VU  1300 - 2400 Bangsia Melanochlamys

The Black-and-gold Tanager is one of two very rare tanagers currently placed in the genus Bangsia (previously subsumed within Buthraupis) that is endemic to the northern Andes of Colombia. Principally black above, set off by the yellow central underparts, the lesser wing-coverts and uppertail-coverts are deep blue. It is found in two distinct regions, one on the Pacific slope of the West Andes, whilst the other is the northern and western slopes of the Central Andes; in both areas it inhabits subtropical cloud forests at elevations of 1000 to 2300 m. There is some evidence to indicate that the species moves to higher elevations in the post-breeding season. The Spanish common name is the Tangara Negriguada (de Juana et al. 2012). The scientific name for this species is Bangsia melanochlamys. The genus Bangsia honors Outrum Bangs who was a collector and zoologist at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University. The specific epithet melanochlamys comes from the Greek roots mela- which means black, and -khlamus which means cloak or mantle (Jobling 2010). Food The foraging strata of this species is the canopy and sub-canopy (Parker et al. 1996, Stiles 1998). They have been observed foraging on insects, by deliberately searching epiphytes, but their primary food source is fruits. They are known to consume the fruits of Cavendishia, Psammisia, Marcgravia, Miconia, Topobaea, an unidentified mistletoe, and the seeds of Clusia (Stiles 1998). They have also been observed crushing and discarding the petals of Cavendishia flowers to extract the nectar. Examination of the stomach contents of these birds (n=8) showed that their diet consists of 75-100% fruit and the remainder consists of insects (Stiles 1998). Behavior The species has been observed to hop heavily and quickly along branches when foraging for fruit, and to pluck the fruit and use their bill to crush it (Stiles 1998). Territoriality No information on the territoriality within family groups or breeding pairs of Black-and-gold Tanager has been reported. However, the Black-and-gold Tanager may partition their habitat with the congeneric Bangsia aureocincta, with B. melanochlamys primarily below 1650 m and B. aureocincta primarily above 1700 m during the breeding season (Stiles 1998).

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2. Golden - Chested Tanager NE 200 - 1110 ( Bangsia Rothschildi)

Golden - Chested Tanager NE 200 - 1110 ( Bangsia Rothschildi)

Restricted to the Pacific slope of the West Andes, at elevations below 1100 m, the Golden-chested Tanager is found in humid forest between central Colombia and extreme northwest Ecuador, in which country it is very poorly known. This tanager is usually found singly or in pairs, but typically within mixed-species flocks and often in the crowns of trees. Like other Bangsia tanagers, it is a striking and very attractive bird, clad largely in black, but with a bold yellow crescent-shaped patch on the breast, and other patches of yellow on the ventral region and underwing-coverts. Both parts of the Latin binomial honor early ornithologists. Bangsia is named for Outram Bangs, a United States zoologist and collector; the specific epithet rothschildi honors Lionel Walter 2nd Baron Rothschild of Trig who was an English ornithologist, entomologist, collector, and publisher (Jobling 2010). In Spanish the common name of this species is Tangara de Rothschild (Hilty 2011, de Juana et al. 2012). Food The Golden-chested Tanager eats invertebrates, fruits, berries, seeds, and nectar from the base flowers (Isler and Isler 1987, Restall et al. 2007). They have been documented to consume over ten different species including melastomes, epiphytes, mistletoe, Cecropia and Ficus (Isler and Isler 1987). All foraging is done in the middle levels or crowns of trees, with the primary foraging stratum is the forest canopy (Parker et. al 1996, Hilty 2011). Behavior The Golden-chested Tanager alternates between bouts of active foraging and slower activity such as perching quietly for long periods of time (Restall et al. 2007). When active, they are seen hopping along branches, quickly cocking their tails, and jumping around 180 degrees (Hilty 2011). It often appears sluggish, with heavy wing beats and direct flight paths from branch to branch (Restall et al. 2007). Most fruit is eaten while perched, but berries can be taken in flight (Isler and Isler 1987). Berries can be mashed, eaten whole, or taken from partially opened pods (Isler and Isler 1987). It often forages for insects along mossy branches and only occasionally catches insects in the air. Territoriality There is no information on territoriality or spacing within this species. Sexual Behavior There is no information of the mating system or courtship displays in this species. At least nine species in five genera of Thraupidae have been observed utilizing cooperative breeding behaviors including nest building and feeding and taking care of young (Gelis et al. 2006). Social and interspecific behavior Reports on the frequency of occuring in mixed-foraging flocks vary for the Golden-chested Tanager. It has been reported as almost always occuring in mixed-species foraging flocks, and only rarely encountered alone (Hilty 1977). Conversely, is has been reported as usually seen alone or in pairs, and can also be seen travelling in mixed-species flocks (Restall et al. 2007). Predation There is no information on specific predators of the Golden-chested Tanager. It is often observed in mixed species flocks, which could be a defensive technique used to reduce predation (Bohórquez 2003). Reproduction The nest of the Golden-chested Tanager has not been described, but an individual was seen with nest material similar to Blue-and-gold Tanager (Bangsia arcaei) nest material. Bangsia arcaei nests look like a clump of moss hanging from a branch with a side entrance (Isler and Isler 1987). A pair of Golden-chested Tanagers were observed carrying nest material in June on the Pacific slope in Colombia (Hilty 1977). Also, adults have been seen bringing fruit to a nest (Hilty and Brown 1986).

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3. Bronze - Winged Parrot 500 - 2500 Pionus Chalcopterus

Bronze - Winged Parrot 500 - 2500 Pionus Chalcopterus

Distributed from western Venezuela to northwest Peru, the Bronze-winged Parrot is mainly found in humid forested areas below 2800 m, and seems to be partially nomadic in parts of its range, for example in parts of Colombia. It is a rather distinctive bird, given that the only similar species is the Dusky Parrot (Pionus fuscus) of the geographically far-removed Guianan Shield. The Bronze-winged Parrot is mainly bronze-brown to very dark blue, with an obvious pale orbital ring, a yellow-colored bill, white-flecked chin, and deep red ventral underparts. Its ecology and behavior have not been subject to intensive study, but the species remains at least locally common, especially in southwest Colombia and parts of western Ecuador.

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4. Black - Winged Saltator600 - 2300Saltator Atripennis

Black - Winged Saltator600 - 2300Saltator Atripennis

The Black-winged Saltator is a fairly common resident of humid montane forest on the west slope of the Andes from southern Ecuador to northern Colombia. It is more difficult to see than some other species of saltator, perhaps due to its preference for the canopy and its avoidance of clearings. The Black-winged Saltator is a very distinctive species: its crown and sides of its head are black with a conspicuous white superciliary, and the bright olive back contrasts with the black wings and tail.

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5. Multicoloured Tanager E VU 800 - 2200 Chlorochrysa Nitidissima

Multicoloured Tanager  E VU 800 - 2200 Chlorochrysa Nitidissima

One of three Chlorochrysa tanagers, the Colombian endemic and globally threatened Multicolored Tanager is a stunningly attractive bird. Males possess a yellow face and throat, a gleaming green nape, a black and chestnut patch on the neck, a yellow mantle and greenish-blue rump, green wings and tail, and bright blue underparts with black median breast and belly. Females are largely similar but duller, and lack the yellow mantle and any black on the underparts. Fairly common locally in the West Andes and north Central Andes of Colombia, this tanager inhabits humid, mossy forest mainly at elevations between 1300 and 2200 m. However, its numbers appear to have declined noticeably during the course of the last 50 years. The name Chlorochrysa nitidissima comes from Greek and Latin words; with Chlorochrysa derived from the Greek words khloros (green) and khrusos (gold), and nitidissima meaning "most brilliant", a superlative of the Latin word nitidus meaning “shining, glittering” (Jobling 2009). The common name in Spanish is the Tangara Multicolor (Hilty 2011, de Juana et al. 2012).Food Multicolored Tanagers are known to consume fruits and a variety of insects. Specific documented fruit items include arillate fruit (e.g., Tovomita), small Ficus fruits, green berries, and flower clusters (Isler and Isler 1987). Also, they have been observed feeding fledglings melastome fruits, and they are known to be primary avian consumers of fruits from Cecropia telealba, Miconia theizans, and Aniba muca (Kessler-Rios and Kattan 2012). Behavior The green colors allow the Multicolored Tanager to blend into the foliage where they hop quickly and prolonged observation is difficult (Isler and Isler 1987). They forage either in pairs or in mixed-species flocks, and tend to stay within the mid to upper levels of the forest, with an average foraging height of 10 m (Isler and Isler 1987, Restall et al. 2007). They glean off the underside of leaves, which is a common foraging mode within Chlorochrysa (Isler and Isler 1987). Their strong tarsi help them hang upside from twigs or leaf surfaces and move quickly across moss to pick at vegetation. They are often seen hanging upside down from branches, vines or even moss clumps, and have been observed climbing vertically from palm frond to frond, or hanging from frond tips (Hilty and Brown 1986, Isler and Isler 1987). Territoriality Multicolored Tanagers typically forage with many other species in mixed-species flocks (Hilty 2011). No other information on the species territoriality is available. Sexual Behavior No sexual behavior or courtship displays have been recorded for the Multicolored Tanager. Social and interspecific behavior Multicolored Tanagers are often seen foraging with mixed-species flocks, though perhaps not as often as other Chlorochrysa species (Hilty 2011). Although mixed-species flocks in the cloud forests of Colombia are more prevalent during the months of November to July (Isler and Isler 1987, Hilty 2011), they are common throughout the year. Predation No information has been reported about behavior towards or from predators. Reproduction Stub-tailed fledglings were observed in the West Andes with two adults at the beginning of November, with the grown juveniles spotted on the 8th of January (Hilty and Brown 1986). In August, adults have been seen feeding their chicks in the Valle del Cauca area (Renjifo et al. 2002). An immature male was reported from Siató, Rio Siató on 16 September 1909, and an immature female from Pueblo Rico on 9 Septemeber 1909 (Hellmayr 1911)

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9. Striped Cuckoo 0 - 2000 ( Tapera Naevia)

Striped Cuckoo 0 - 2000 ( Tapera Naevia)

The Striped Cuckoo is a medium-sized, brown cuckoo. It has a short but bushy, reddish brown crest that is streaked with black, and a long, graduated tail. The brown upperparts are heavily streaked with black; the underparts are unmarked, and buff to white in color. Similar Species No similar species of cuckoo is expected in the relatively open habitats favored by the Striped Cuckoo. The two species of Dromococcyx, the Pheasant and Pavonine cuckoos, both are larger than the Striped Cuckoo (although the size difference is much greater between Pheasant and Striped; Pavonine is closer in size to Striped). Both species of Dromococcyx also are found in more forested habitats; their upperparts are scaled, not streaked with black; and the crowns of the Dromococcyx are not streaked. Also, the breast of the Pheasant Cuckoo is heavily speckled with black or dusky spots. Food Little information. The diet primarily is insects, including grasshoppers (Pelzen 1871, Dickey and van Rossem 1938, Haverschmidt 1968, Belton 1984); caterpillars (Friedmann 1927, Dickey and van Rossem 1938, Haverschmidt 1968); dragonflies (Skutch 1999); cockroaches (Skutch 1999); and beetles (Friedmann 1927, Dickey and van Rossem 1938). Items fed to a nestling in a nest of Red-and-white Spinetail Certhiaxis mustelinus were hemipterans, grasshoppers, caterpillars, spiders, and snails (Haverschmidt 1968). More unusual is an observation of a Rufous-and-white Wren Thryothorus rufalbus feeding red berries to a fledgling Striped Cuckoo (Loetscher 1952). Behavior Forages in trees and on ground; sways from side to side and flashes alulas then scurries after prey (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Territoriality Details of territoriality not known. The Striped Cuckoo's two-note "sem-fin" song seems to function as passerine song. Individuals responding to sem-fim playback would approach speaker, begin singing wee-songs, raise and lower crest, hold wings away from body with alulas extending, ruffing feathers of back, spread tail slightly and sway back and forth (Smith and Smith 2000).

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10. Grey - Capped Cuckoo 0 - 1000 ( Coccyzus Lansbergi)

Grey - Capped Cuckoo 0 - 1000 ( Coccyzus Lansbergi)

The Gray-capped Cuckoo is a rare and poorly-known Coccyzus cuckoo of northwestern South America. Its distribution is poorly known. Apparently the Gray-capped Cuckoo breeds in northwestern Peru and in southwestern Ecuador; but it also regularly occurs north to northern Colombia and northern Venezuela, and there are records as well from the Galapagos Islands and from the east side of the Andes. This is a distinctive cuckoo, with the dark gray head contrasting with the rich rufous underparts. It is known primarily from dry deciduous or semi-deciduous woodland. It is generally difficult to spot, remaining within vegetation and moving about sluggishly.

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14. orange-bellied euphonia (Euphonia xanthogaster)

orange-bellied euphonia (Euphonia xanthogaster)

The Orange-bellied Euphonia is widely but disjunctly distributed across South America, with the main range focused on western and northern South America, and a separate, and much smaller, population in the Atlantic Forest of southeast Brazil. Males are generally very similar in all subspecies to the equally, if not more abundant, Purple-throated Euphonia (Euphonia chlorotica), but are always more ochraceous over the yellow underparts and crown patch, while the females of the present species are quite different, being mostly olive above with a tawny-yellowish forehead, a gray nape, and mostly buffy grayish below. The Orange-bellied Euphonia is usually found in pairs or small groups, and typically feeds relatively low above the ground.

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15. Broad-billed Motmot_0-1200_Electron platyrhynchum

Broad-billed Motmot_0-1200_Electron platyrhynchum

REPRODUCTION:The nest of the Broad-billed Motmot is constructed in a cavity excavated, usually by the motmots themselves, into the side of a well-vegetated mud cliff or overhang. Skutch noted egg laying in April and May at La Selva, Costa Rica, although the timing of egg laying likely varies across this species’ range. Clutch size is 2-3 eggs. Eggs are white, without patterning. Incubation is performed by male and female in shifts. In his account of a nesting attempt, Skutch posits that the member of the pair whom he observed incubating from afternoon until dawn was probably the female, and the one whom he observed incubating in the morning the male. However, his assumption of these identities is based on the nesting behavior of other species, and is never confirmed by him or by other natural historians. Surprisingly, given the detailed nature of his account, Skutch does not mention the duration of incubation in this species. Both parents brood during the first week of nestling development, but not afterwards, and feeding is performed by both parents at least until fledging. Young leave the nest at about 24 days of age. SOCIAL BEHAVIOR:Broad-billed Motmot is generally solitary outside of the breeding season. To date, no concentrated studies have been conducted to catalogue interspecific interactions between this species and other motmots. However, this species is known to trail army ant swarms, and may compete with obligate ant-swarm followers for food. SEXUALBEHAVIOR:Broad-billed Motmot is socially monogamous with biparental care. The single courtship event narrated by Skutch begins with duetting during foraging, followed by the male withholding a captured prey item from the female, and ends with the female seemingly becoming frustrated and leaving. Given the small sample size involved in Skutch’s accout, little can be said as to whether this progression of behaviors is representative of Broad-billed Motmot courtship. Although information on the timing of the mating season is lacking in most of this species’ range, courtship at Barro Colorado Island, Panama, has been observed in January, coinciding with the beginning of the dry season there (Wieder & Wright 1995). Broad-billed Motmot is most often found in middle layers of vegetation in humid forest habitats. They are sit-and-wait predators, perching quietly on branches before darting out to capture prey items as they pass by below. Prey may either be taken from the air or from the surface of vegetation. They will often trail army ant swarms in order to capture and consume fleeing insects. Although Skutch does not give a complete description of foraging time allotment, he observed birds continuing to forage after dark in the evening, and notes that young in a nest were fed (indicating prior foraging) frequently during daylight hours, suggesting that foraging is not restricted to one particular time during the day. Motmots are known to use tail wagging as a means of conveying signals to conspecifics and predators (Murphy 2007a), though the signaling function of tails remains unstudied in Broad-billed Motmots. The diet of Broad-billed Motmot is primarily composed of invertebrate prey, especially insects. Cicadas (Hemiptera) are preferred by this species during times of the year when they are available. Insect larvae, spiders, and centipedes are also consumed, as are small vertebrate prey items including frogs and lizards. Notably, dragonflies (Odonata) and butterflies (Lepidoptera) are not consumed in large quantities at any time during the year. Skutch never observed this species consuming fruit, as do some larger motmot species, and this is believed to be true of this species more broadly.

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16. golden-breasted fruiteater (Pipreola aureopectus)

golden-breasted fruiteater (Pipreola aureopectus)

The Golden-breasted Fruiteater is endemic to northern Venezuela and northern Colombia, where the species is tolerably common and easily identified because the male lacks the black head common to several sympatric Pipreola species. This species occurs at lower and mid elevations of humid premontane and montane forest, including borders, as well as in shade-coffee plantations and taller second growth. In parts of northern Venezuela, the Golden-breasted Fruiteater appears to be found solely at intermediate and drier levels, between the ranges of the Handsome Fruiteater (Pipreola formosa), which occurs lower, and the Green-and-black Fruiteater (Pipreola riefferii). Usually observed alone or in pairs, the Golden-breasted Fruiteater is often encountered within mixed-species flocks, and the species can be confiding, typically perching near motionless for long periods, scanning its surroundings before making a clumsy-looking flight to pluck a nearby fruit.

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17. blue-and-black tanager (Tangara vassorii)

blue-and-black tanager (Tangara vassorii)

Blue-and-black Tanagers (Tangara vassorii) are vibrantly-colored, tropical birds that occur in the Andes of northwestern South America from Venezuela to Bolivia. They live at higher elevations than any other species of Tangara (Isler and Isler 1987). There are three subspecies, all of which occur in the upper montane evergreen forest, elfin forest, and tall secondary growth forest in the Andes (Parker et al. 1996, Isler and Isler 1987). Their diet consists of a variety of fruits as well as some insects. Rarely found alone, they live mostly in mated pairs and regularly join large mixed species flocks when foraging at abundant sites. There is little information regarding their behavior, population dynamics, and demography. The conservation status of the Blue-and black Tanager is listed as a species of Least Concern by the IUCN. Furthermore, the Blue-and-black Tanager has been described as "fairly common" (Parker et al. 1996), although there is currently no quantifiable information regarding the population size or trend of the species. Food Similar to other Tangara species, the Blue-and-black Tanager has a diet consisting mostly of fruits and arthropods. This species is especially fond of the flowering plant, Miconia, and other fruits produced by the Melastomataceae. In a comparative study of Tangara diets and foraging behavior, Naoki (2003) found that all fruit taken by T. vassorii were in the genus Miconia. The Blue-and-black Tanager was the only Tangara, among 25 species studied, that feed solely on fruit in a single genus. Isler and Isler (1987) summarized stomach contents for this species and found vegetable matter listed for 14 individuals and animal matter listed for three individuals. Specific items listed include fruit pulp, seeds, berries, insects, and seeds of melastome fruits. Behavior Locomotion: Described as active, spritely, and restless, the Blue-and-black Tanager hops quickly along branches and flutters through foliage, rarely spending most of its time in one area (Isler and Isler 1987). Foraging: The Blue-and-black Tanager can forage at all levels and in a fast-paced manner (Restall et al. 2007), with the canopy being the preferred foraging strata (Parker et al. 1996). This tanager forages from low in bushes to the tallest tree crowns though they typically stay high in the trees within forest (Isler and Isler 1987). When foraging for arthropods, the Blue-and-black Tanager searches several different substrates and uses several differnt methods to find their prey. Isler and Isler (1987) summarized several of these generally. They sometimes hop along moss-covered branches, and they use the diagonal-lean method to search for prey on the undersides branches, the top and bottom surfaces of leaves, clumps of moss, and small bromeliads. They also are described as hanging upside down to inspect leaves, petioles, and bunches of dead twigs for prey items. Naoki (2003) quantified various arthropod foraging modes and substrates for Tangara vassorii and a number of other Tangara species. The most common attack modes used by T. vassorii are: reach-down (28%), glean (25%), and reach-out (13%). Hang-upside down was used in only 9.4% of the observations. The most common substrates searched were partially moss covered branches (43%), bare branches (19%), and leaves (19%). For fruit foraging, Isler and Isler (1987) mention that this species will lean down to reach out and snap up berries in a rapid motion and subsequently sit upright while eating on the berry. In Naoki's (2003) study, the most common fruit foraging modes were gleaning (72%), reach-out (21%), and reach-down (7%).

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19. Indigo Flowerpiercer NE_UC_700_2200_Diglossa indigotica

Indigo Flowerpiercer NE_UC_700_2200_Diglossa indigotica

This species occupies a relatively small range in western Colombia and northwest Ecuador, in which latter country it appears to be particularly uncommon and difficult to find. In the Colombian portion of its range, in contrast, the Indigo Flowerpiercer, although local remains reasonably numerous. Nonetheless, the overall population trend is doubtless declining. As befits its name, the Indigo Flowerpiercer has a brilliant ultramarine plumage, relieved only by the blackish flight feathers and a narrow black eye-ring and lores, whilst the irides are deep red, and brighter than those of any other Diglossa species. Food The Indigo Flowerpiercer forages at midheights or higher (Hilty and Brown 1986, Isler and Isler 1987). They are most commonly observed foraging for invertebrates and berries (Hilty 2011), but they also sometimes feed on nectar by piercing the base of flowers with their hooked bills, like other members of the genus Diglossa (Bock 1985, Hilty 2011). Behavior Diglossa indigotica is usually observed foraging solitarily or in pairs (Isler and Isler 1987, Ridgely and Tudor 2009). They have also been observed in mixed flocks (Hilty and Brown 1986, Ridgely and Tudor 2009). They are described as hyperactive (Hilty 2011) and are constantly fidgeting and moving between branches (Ridgely and Tudor 1989). They are usually observed gleaning for arthropods and berries on moss covered branches (Hilty 2011). Territoriality No Information Sexual Behavior No Information Social and interspecific behavior These birds are usually observed singly or in pairs (Isler and Isler 1987, Ridgely and Tudor 2009). They also join mixed-species flocks (Hilty and Brown 1986, Ridgely and Tudor 2009). Predation No Information. Reproduction An individual was observed carrying nesting material in June in Valle, Colombia (Hilty and Brown 1986). There is no additional information on the species reproductive behavior. Populations and Demography This species is described as ‘fairly common’ (Birdlife International 2016). Global populations are believed to be declining, but this decline is not steep enough to classify the Indigo Flowerpiercer as Vulnerable (Birdlife International 2016). Parker et al. (1996) classify the Indigo Tanager as ‘fairly common’ relative to other Neotropical birds. The species is much less common in Ecuador and could be considered vulnerable in the southern reaches of its range (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001). No information available on age at first breeding, life span, survivorship, parasitism, or population regulation.

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