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1. Download The Medieval and Ottoman Hajj Route in Jordan: An Archaeological and Historical Study

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Download The Medieval and Ottoman Hajj Route in Jordan: An Archaeological and Historical Study

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2. [Free Read] The Medieval and Ottoman Hajj Route in Jordan: An Archaeological and Historical Study

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[Free Read] The Medieval and Ottoman Hajj Route in Jordan: An Archaeological and Historical Study

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3. Christopher Columbus: What Really Happened

  • Duration: 338
  • Channel: tv
Christopher Columbus: What Really Happened

Subscribe for more videos: \rAn educational animation which recounts the four voyages of Columbus. Hope you enjoy!\r\rBibliography at bottom of description\r\rAUTHORS NOTE: This video is meant to give a non-bias account of the events which unfolded when Columbus and his crew made cont with the people of the Caribbean. Of course, I was not able to fit everything into the video; I had to omit details, such as the f that the Taino were not the only people that Columbus encountered (there were also the Ciguayo tribe and Carib cannibals). A second particular is that not all fault should lie directly on Columbus shoulders. His crew of 1,200 for the second journey consisted partly of convicts and landless nobles, the worst type of people with which to build a settlement. Another f is that Columbus grew up in societies (Genoa, then Portugal) that kept domestic slaves.\r\rI have no political agenda for making this video. I am a student of history and I have tried to give an account of Columbus journeys that is as close as we can possibly get to the truth.\r\rI will I admit that I am not a fan of Columbus. I think he was cruel, even for his time. We cannot judge a 15th-century human from a 21st-century perspective; but even for the 15th century, he was an awful arbiter. \r\rSources:\r\rBergreen, Laurence. Columbus: The Four Voyages. Viking Penguin, new.\r\rCarman, Harry J., and Harold C. Syrett. A History of the American People. Vol. 1. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952.\r\rFernandez-Armesto, Felipe. 1492; The Year the World Began. Harper Collins e-books, new.\r\rHale, Edward E. The Life of Christopher Columbus from His Own Letters and Journals. Rockville, Maryland: Arc Manor, 2008.\r\rHaywood, John. Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. New York: Metro Books, 2000.\r\rJotischky, Andrew, and Caroline Hull. Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. London: The Penguin Group, 2005.\r\rLoewen, James, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. New York: Touchstone, 1995.\r\rLybyer, A. H., The Ottoman Turks and the Routes of Oriental Trade, The English Historical Review, Vol. 30, No. 120. (Oct., 1915), pp. 577-588.\r\rMann, Charles. 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.\r\rMorison, Samuel Eliot. Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. Boston: Little Brown and Co. 1942.\r\rPhillips, William & Phillips, Carla, The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge University Press, 1992.\r\rPickering, Keith. The Columbus Navigation Homepage. \r\rPohl, John. The Conquistador: 1492-1550. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2001\r.\rSale, Kirkpatrick. Christopher Columbus and the Conquest of Paradise. London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2006.\r\rScafetta, Joesph Jr. Columbus and the Indians: Friend of Foe? \r\rThe Most Important Maps Since the Dawn of Printing, Part I: Tradition and Innovation. Arader Galleries.\r\rUdovitch, A. L. Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages, The American Historical Review, Vol. 91, No. 1 (Feb., 1986), 92. \r\rVarela, C. Cristobal Colon: Textos y Documentos Completos. Madrid: Alianza, 1984.\r\rVignaud, Henry. Columbus: A Spaniard and a Jew, The American Historical Review, Vol. 18, No. 3 (April, 1913), pp. 505-512.\r\rWilford, John Noble. The Mysterious History of Christopher Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legacy. (1991)\r\rYoung, Filson. Christopher Columbus and the New World of His Discovery. Vol. 6. London: E. Grant Richards, 1906.


4. Christopher Columbus: What Really Happened

  • Duration: 338
  • Channel: tv
Christopher Columbus: What Really Happened

Subscribe for more videos: \rAn educational animation which recounts the four voyages of Columbus. Hope you enjoy!\r\rBibliography at bottom of description\r\rAUTHORS NOTE: This video is meant to give a non-bias account of the events which unfolded when Columbus and his crew made cont with the people of the Caribbean. Of course, I was not able to fit everything into the video; I had to omit details, such as the f that the Taino were not the only people that Columbus encountered (there were also the Ciguayo tribe and Carib cannibals). A second particular is that not all fault should lie directly on Columbus shoulders. His crew of 1,200 for the second journey consisted partly of convicts and landless nobles, the worst type of people with which to build a settlement. Another f is that Columbus grew up in societies (Genoa, then Portugal) that kept domestic slaves.\r\rI have no political agenda for making this video. I am a student of history and I have tried to give an account of Columbus journeys that is as close as we can possibly get to the truth.\r\rI will I admit that I am not a fan of Columbus. I think he was cruel, even for his time. We cannot judge a 15th-century human from a 21st-century perspective; but even for the 15th century, he was an awful arbiter. \r\rSources:\r\rBergreen, Laurence. Columbus: The Four Voyages. Viking Penguin, new.\r\rCarman, Harry J., and Harold C. Syrett. A History of the American People. Vol. 1. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952.\r\rFernandez-Armesto, Felipe. 1492; The Year the World Began. Harper Collins e-books, new.\r\rHale, Edward E. The Life of Christopher Columbus from His Own Letters and Journals. Rockville, Maryland: Arc Manor, 2008.\r\rHaywood, John. Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. New York: Metro Books, 2000.\r\rJotischky, Andrew, and Caroline Hull. Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. London: The Penguin Group, 2005.\r\rLoewen, James, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. New York: Touchstone, 1995.\r\rLybyer, A. H., The Ottoman Turks and the Routes of Oriental Trade, The English Historical Review, Vol. 30, No. 120. (Oct., 1915), pp. 577-588.\r\rMann, Charles. 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.\r\rMorison, Samuel Eliot. Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. Boston: Little Brown and Co. 1942.\r\rPhillips, William & Phillips, Carla, The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge University Press, 1992.\r\rPickering, Keith. The Columbus Navigation Homepage. \r\rPohl, John. The Conquistador: 1492-1550. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2001\r.\rSale, Kirkpatrick. Christopher Columbus and the Conquest of Paradise. London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2006.\r\rScafetta, Joesph Jr. Columbus and the Indians: Friend of Foe? \r\rThe Most Important Maps Since the Dawn of Printing, Part I: Tradition and Innovation. Arader Galleries.\r\rUdovitch, A. L. Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages, The American Historical Review, Vol. 91, No. 1 (Feb., 1986), 92. \r\rVarela, C. Cristobal Colon: Textos y Documentos Completos. Madrid: Alianza, 1984.\r\rVignaud, Henry. Columbus: A Spaniard and a Jew, The American Historical Review, Vol. 18, No. 3 (April, 1913), pp. 505-512.\r\rWilford, John Noble. The Mysterious History of Christopher Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legacy. (1991)\r\rYoung, Filson. Christopher Columbus and the New World of His Discovery. Vol. 6. London: E. Grant Richards, 1906.


5. Christopher Columbus: What Really Happened

  • Duration: 338
  • Channel: tv
Christopher Columbus: What Really Happened

Subscribe for more videos: \rAn educational animation which recounts the four voyages of Columbus. Hope you enjoy!\r\rBibliography at bottom of description\r\rAUTHORS NOTE: This video is meant to give a non-bias account of the events which unfolded when Columbus and his crew made cont with the people of the Caribbean. Of course, I was not able to fit everything into the video; I had to omit details, such as the f that the Taino were not the only people that Columbus encountered (there were also the Ciguayo tribe and Carib cannibals). A second particular is that not all fault should lie directly on Columbus shoulders. His crew of 1,200 for the second journey consisted partly of convicts and landless nobles, the worst type of people with which to build a settlement. Another f is that Columbus grew up in societies (Genoa, then Portugal) that kept domestic slaves.\r\rI have no political agenda for making this video. I am a student of history and I have tried to give an account of Columbus journeys that is as close as we can possibly get to the truth.\r\rI will I admit that I am not a fan of Columbus. I think he was cruel, even for his time. We cannot judge a 15th-century human from a 21st-century perspective; but even for the 15th century, he was an awful arbiter. \r\rSources:\r\rBergreen, Laurence. Columbus: The Four Voyages. Viking Penguin, new.\r\rCarman, Harry J., and Harold C. Syrett. A History of the American People. Vol. 1. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952.\r\rFernandez-Armesto, Felipe. 1492; The Year the World Began. Harper Collins e-books, new.\r\rHale, Edward E. The Life of Christopher Columbus from His Own Letters and Journals. Rockville, Maryland: Arc Manor, 2008.\r\rHaywood, John. Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. New York: Metro Books, 2000.\r\rJotischky, Andrew, and Caroline Hull. Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. London: The Penguin Group, 2005.\r\rLoewen, James, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. New York: Touchstone, 1995.\r\rLybyer, A. H., The Ottoman Turks and the Routes of Oriental Trade, The English Historical Review, Vol. 30, No. 120. (Oct., 1915), pp. 577-588.\r\rMann, Charles. 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.\r\rMorison, Samuel Eliot. Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. Boston: Little Brown and Co. 1942.\r\rPhillips, William & Phillips, Carla, The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge University Press, 1992.\r\rPickering, Keith. The Columbus Navigation Homepage. \r\rPohl, John. The Conquistador: 1492-1550. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2001\r.\rSale, Kirkpatrick. Christopher Columbus and the Conquest of Paradise. London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2006.\r\rScafetta, Joesph Jr. Columbus and the Indians: Friend of Foe? \r\rThe Most Important Maps Since the Dawn of Printing, Part I: Tradition and Innovation. Arader Galleries.\r\rUdovitch, A. L. Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages, The American Historical Review, Vol. 91, No. 1 (Feb., 1986), 92. \r\rVarela, C. Cristobal Colon: Textos y Documentos Completos. Madrid: Alianza, 1984.\r\rVignaud, Henry. Columbus: A Spaniard and a Jew, The American Historical Review, Vol. 18, No. 3 (April, 1913), pp. 505-512.\r\rWilford, John Noble. The Mysterious History of Christopher Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legacy. (1991)\r\rYoung, Filson. Christopher Columbus and the New World of His Discovery. Vol. 6. London: E. Grant Richards, 1906.


6. Christopher Columbus: What Really Happened

  • Duration: 338
  • Channel: tv
Christopher Columbus: What Really Happened

Subscribe for more videos: \rAn educational animation which recounts the four voyages of Columbus. Hope you enjoy!\r\rBibliography at bottom of description\r\rAUTHORS NOTE: This video is meant to give a non-bias account of the events which unfolded when Columbus and his crew made contact with the people of the Caribbean. Of course, I was not able to fit everything into the video; I had to omit details, such as the fact that the Taino were not the only people that Columbus encountered (there were also the Ciguayo tribe and Carib cannibals). A second particular is that not all fault should lie directly on Columbus shoulders. His crew of 1,200 for the second journey consisted partly of convicts and landless nobles, the worst type of people with which to build a settlement. Another fact is that Columbus grew up in societies (Genoa, then Portugal) that kept domestic slaves.\r\rI have no political agenda for making this video. I am a student of history and I have tried to give an account of Columbus journeys that is as close as we can possibly get to the truth.\r\rI will I admit that I am not a fan of Columbus. I think he was cruel, even for his time. We cannot judge a 15th-century human from a 21st-century perspective; but even for the 15th century, he was an awful arbiter. \r\rSources:\r\rBergreen, Laurence. Columbus: The Four Voyages. Viking Penguin, 2011.\r\rCarman, Harry J., and Harold C. Syrett. A History of the American People. Vol. 1. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1952.\r\rFernandez-Armesto, Felipe. 1492; The Year the World Began. Harper Collins e-books, 2009.\r\rHale, Edward E. The Life of Christopher Columbus from His Own Letters and Journals. Rockville, Maryland: Arc Manor, 2008.\r\rHaywood, John. Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. New York: Metro Books, 2000.\r\rJotischky, Andrew, and Caroline Hull. Historical Atlas of the Medieval World. London: The Penguin Group, 2005.\r\rLoewen, James, Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. New York: Touchstone, 1995.\r\rLybyer, A. H., The Ottoman Turks and the Routes of Oriental Trade, The English Historical Review, Vol. 30, No. 120. (Oct., 1915), pp. 577-588.\r\rMann, Charles. 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.\r\rMorison, Samuel Eliot. Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus. Boston: Little Brown and Co. 1942.\r\rPhillips, William & Phillips, Carla, The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge University Press, 1992.\r\rPickering, Keith. The Columbus Navigation Homepage. \r\rPohl, John. The Conquistador: 1492-1550. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2001\r.\rSale, Kirkpatrick. Christopher Columbus and the Conquest of Paradise. London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2006.\r\rScafetta, Joesph Jr. Columbus and the Indians: Friend of Foe? \r\rThe Most Important Maps Since the Dawn of Printing, Part I: Tradition and Innovation. Arader Galleries.\r\rUdovitch, A. L. Levant Trade in the Later Middle Ages, The American Historical Review, Vol. 91, No. 1 (Feb., 1986), 92. \r\rVarela, C. Cristobal Colon: Textos y Documentos Completos. Madrid: Alianza, 1984.\r\rVignaud, Henry. Columbus: A Spaniard and a Jew, The American Historical Review, Vol. 18, No. 3 (April, 1913), pp. 505-512.\r\rWilford, John Noble. The Mysterious History of Christopher Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legacy. (1991)\r\rYoung, Filson. Christopher Columbus and the New World of His Discovery. Vol. 6. London: E. Grant Richards, 1906.


7. Top 20 Places to Visit in Istanbul - A Tour Through Images - Most Popular Places to Visit in Istanbul

  • Duration: 204
  • Channel: travel
Top 20 Places to Visit in Istanbul - A Tour Through Images - Most Popular Places to Visit in Istanbul

Top 20 Places to Visit in Istanbul - A Tour Through Images Please Subscribe to the Channel for More: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCoJLo82L3LL1EHevngliIyQ/videos ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Istanbul, historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the country's economic, cultural, and historic center. Istanbul is a transcontinental city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosphorus strait (which separates Europe and Asia) between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives on the Asian side. The city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (coterminous with Istanbul Province), both hosting a population of around 15 million residents. Istanbul is one of the world's most populous cities and ranks as the world's 7th-largest city proper and the largest European city. Istanbul is viewed as a bridge between East and West. Founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city developed to become one of the most significant in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as an imperial capital for almost 16 centuries, during the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1922) empires. It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times, before the Ottomans conquered the city in 1453 and transformed it into an Islamic stronghold and the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. Istanbul's strategic position on the historic Silk Road, rail networks to Europe and the Middle East, and the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean have produced a cosmopolitan populace, although less so since the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Overlooked for the new capital Ankara during the interwar period, the city has since regained much of its prominence. 1- Aya Sofya 2- Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı) 3- Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmet Camii) 4- Istanbul Archaeology Museum 5- Hippodrome 6- Süleymaniye Mosque 7- Dolmabahçe Palace 8- Grand Bazaar (Kapalı Çarşı) 9- Spice Bazaar (Mısır Çarşısı) 10- Galata Tower 11- Üsküdar 12- Little Aya Sofya (Küçük Aya Sofya) 13- Basilica Cistern (Yerebatan Sarnıçı) 14- Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts (Türk ve Islam Eserleri Müzesi) 15- Rüstem Paşa Mosque 16- Chora Church (Kariye Müzesi) 17- Yedikule Fortress (Yedikule Hısarı) 18- İstiklal Caddesi and Taksim 19- Istanbul Modern 20- Pera Museum ----------------------------------------­------------------ ⇢ If you like then please Share and Subscribe to the Channel You Can Also Check & Join us at: ⇢ https://www.facebook.com/In4mativeVideos/ ⇢ https://twitter.com/In4mativeVideos/ ⇢ https://www.instagram.com/In4mativeVideos/ ⇢ https://in4mativevideos.tumblr.com ⇢ https://www.pinterest.com/In4mativeVideos/pins/


8. Travel Planet - Lebanon

  • Duration: 2030
  • Channel: travel
Travel Planet - Lebanon

The Republic of Lebanon (Arabic: لبنان) is a small country (10,452km² in area) with 3.7 million inhabitants) within the Middle East region with its capital being Beirut. It has a long coastline on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and shares a long land border with its much larger neighbour Syria to the north and the east, a much shorter (and currently "hot") border with Israel to the south. Lebanon is a country with a long and rich history. Phoenician, Egyptian, Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Crusader, and Ottoman ruins are scattered about the country and the most important of them are easily accessible. Byblos, Beirut, Tyre and Sidon are among the oldest continuously populated cities in the world. There are Roman baths in Beirut, as well as the Cardio Maximus - to name a few. Byblos is also rich in Crusader ruins and for a small fee you can view them (they are located near the bazaar). There are a lot of ancient mosques, synagogues, and churches in Lebanon. Also be sure to visit the Place des Martyrs (Martyrs' Square) in Beirut, a statue erected in memory of the Lebanese nationalists who were hanged by the Ottomans for revolting during the first World War. The people of Lebanon comprise a wide variety of ethnic groups and religions, with the majority split between Christians (Maronite, Greek Orthodox, Greek-Catholic Melkites, Armenians, Protestant etc), Muslims (Shi'a, Sunni, Alawites) and Druzes. The most recent demographics study, conducted by Statistics Lebanon indicate that Muslims make up 54% of Lebanese population, 40.5% are Christians, and approximately 5.5% are Druze. Other groups include a large number of Syrian refugees (between 1,200,000 and 1,600,000 as of spring 2015) and Palestinian refugees in the country (over 250,000). People are very easy-going and welcoming. Asking someone on the street for directions is easy, since most of them will do their best to help you. Political and religious questions may be sensitive topics of discussion. Lebanon is populated by very open and educated people, especially in places like Beirut, Mount Lebanon and some of the larger cities. Attitudes and behaviors tend to be more conservative in the Bekaa Valley and rural north and south. Lebanon and Beirut were once called the Switzerland and Paris of the Middle East. The recent wars have diminished this status, but the Lebanese have learned to adapt. Their pursuit of happiness and fun overshadows their financial capabilities and political problems. Lebanon has a number of both Christian and Islamic holidays. Holidays that are observed by the Lebanese Government are indicated in bold: New Year's Day (January 1) Epifany & Armenian Christmas (January 6)- Christian religious observances. St. Valentine's Day (February 14) St. Maroun's Day (February 9)- Christian religious observances. Prophet's Day (March 9)- Islamic religious observances Annunciation- Christian religious observances. Good Friday- Christian religious observances. Easter (A Sunday in March or April)- Christian religious observances. Labor Day (May 1)- most businesses and schools closed. Liberation of the South (May 25) St. Elias's Day (July 20)- A lot of fireworks and festivals. National Army Day (August 1) Assumption Day (August 15) Ramadan (variable)-Islamic religious observances Eid el Fiitr (variable)-Islamic religious observances All Saints day (November 1)- Christian religious observances. Ashouraa- Islamic religious observances Independence Day (November 22)- All businesses and schools closed. Eid il-Burbara or Saint Barbara's Day (December 4)- Christian religious observances. All in all, Beirut, Lebanon's capital city, is a vibrant metropolis with enough diversions that any city lover would look for, ranking it among the Middle East's top tourist destinations. Being perched on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea, Beirut has a climate that is perfect for year round visits, as it experiences all 4 seasons. Beirut has something to offer most tastes, from roadside à la Parisienne coffee shops to rooftop open air cafes, as well as a variety of shopping venues. Many cities in Lebanon have Westernised names which are significantly different from their Arabic names; the Roman versions of the Arabic names are given in parentheses below. Beirut - the capital and largest city , Claim as oldest continuously inhabited city in the world Baalbek - a Phoenician and Roman archaeological site, including the biggest temple all over the Roman Empire Byblos (Jbeil) - another city with plenty of remains, castles and museums , another city that Claim as oldest continuously inhabited city in the world Jounieh - known for its seaside resorts and nightclubs Sidon (Saida) - plenty of medieval remains Tripoli (Trablus) - still unspoilt by mass-tourism Tyre (Sour) - has a number of ancient sites, including its Roman Hippodrome which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site Zahle - capital of Bekaa Valley


9. 10 UNREAL ANCIENT LOCATIONS

  • Duration: 492
  • Channel: tv
10 UNREAL ANCIENT LOCATIONS

From the astonishing city of Masada, to the amazing Petra, these are 10 UNREAL Ancient Locations !\r\r\r\r\r5.\rMasada -- Its name in Hebrew means ‘stronghold or ‘mountain castle … an apt description. Its often considered a fortress, and is found in Israel, on the western shore of the Dead Sea. It was built by Herod the Great in the 1st century BC. The plateau upon which it was built was surrounded by deep gorges and naturally fortified. And it was known for its ingenious engineering, containing a palace, barracks, a storehouse and an armory. Today, it might be best known for a battle between the Roman legions and 960 Jewish Zealots … which ended with the Zealots mass suicide in 73 AD \r\r4.\rChurches of Goreme (go-reem) -- Around 2,000 years ago, a volcano erupted in Turkey … the lava and ash formed soft rocks in the countrys Cappadocia (kappa-doe-sha) region, that covered some 20,000 kilometers. Present day fairy chimneys were formed as the softer rock was eroded by water and wind, but leaving a the hard cap rock atop the pillars. The people of Goreme, in the heart of the region, realized it was easy to carve houses, monasteries and churches from out of the soft rock. The Christian sanctuaries contains numerous examples of Byzantine artwork. The colorful frescoes are considered an exceptional artistic achievement from this period.\r\r\r\r\r3.\r Kailasha temple\rEllora Caves -- Located in India, this site is thought to represent the pinnacle of Indian rock-cut architecture … and is one of the largest such complexes in the world. Ellora features 34 caves excavated out of the rock. And the caves consist of artwork and monuments of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism (jane-ism) from the period of 600-1000 AD, thought to be when the caves were built. Its now an archaeological site … but historically, the caves have served as temples for prayers, monasteries for monks and a place for pilgrims to rest. Did you know the worlds single largest monolithic rock excavation is found here? Its called the Kailasha (kel-asha) Temple, a monument dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva. Its especially notable for its vertical excavation … that is, carvers started from the top of the original rock, then excavated downward. Amazingly, its area is twice the size of the Parthenon in Athens. \r\r2.\rLycian (liss-ee-un) Tombs -- The ancient Lycians (liss-ee-uns) were a group of people that didnt leave behind the most detailed historical record … but they did leave behind some amazing architecture! Lycia was ually a federation of ancient cities located in present-day Turkey. Many of their tombs were cut directly into the rock face, most often a cliff. The elaborate funeral chambers of wealthy Lycians were usually decorated with detailed relief carving. Outside, the tombs displayed important events that occurred during the lifetime of the deceased, as well as their specific likeness. A sliding stone door sealed the entrance. None of the rock-cut tombs can be dated before the 4th century, BC. Other tombs created by the Lycians (liss-ee-uns) include the sarcophagus tomb, notable for their large size and consisting of a base, a grave chamber and a pointed lid. The oldest and least common Lycian tomb is the Pillar Tomb … they only exist in west Lycia and consist of a monolith which narrows toward the top, standing on the ground or positioned on a base. The best known pillar tomb is probably the Harpy Tomb at Xanthos (zan-thos).\r\r\r\r\r1.\rPetra -- This site was first introduced to the western world by a Swiss explorer in 1812 … but it existed long before that. Although an ex date is unknown, this city may have been established as early as 312 BC by the Nabataeans (na-BAT-ee-uns). Petra is famed for its rock-cut architecture and water conduit system. Its also known as the Rose City, due to the sandstone from which it is carved. Enclosed by gargantuan rock walls of the Wadi Musa (mews) Canyon, Petra enjoyed a perennial water stream, and had the advantages of a fortress. The city became a major junction for main commercial routes that linked Asia and southern Arabia with Egypt, Greece and Rome. Petra is listed as one of the new 7 wonders of the world, and is Jordans most visited tourist site.\r\rSubscribe to Epic Wildlife \r\rLets Connect\r-- \r-- \r-- \r--


10. Read: Food in Medieval England: Diet and Nutrition (Medieval Free Download Book

  • Duration: 24
  • Channel: tech
Read:  Food in Medieval England: Diet and Nutrition (Medieval  Free Download Book

Donwload Here http://tinyurl.com/ng4xej5 Feature * Food and diet are central to understanding daily life in the middle ages. In the last two decades, the potential for the study of diet in medieval England has changed markedly: historians have addressed sources in new ways; material from a wide range of sites has been processed by zooarchaeologists and archaeobotanists; and scientific techniques, newly applied to the medieval period, are opening up possibilities for understanding the cumulative effects of diet on the skeleton. In a multi-disciplinary approach to the subject, this volume, written by leading experts in different fields, unites analysis of the historical, archaeological, and scientific record to provide an up-to-date synthesis. The volume covers the whole of the middle ages from the early Saxon period up to c .1540, and while the focus is on England wider European developments are not ignored. The first aim of the book is to establish how much more is now known about patterns of diet, nutrition, and the use of food in display and social competition; its second is to promote interchange between the methodological approaches of historians and archaeologists. The text brings together much original research, marrying historical and archaeological approaches with analysis from a range of archaeological disciplines, including archaeobotany, archaeozoology, osteoarchaeology, and isotopic studies. Donwload Here http://tinyurl.com/ng4xej5 Download Food in Medieval England: Diet and Nutrition (Medieval History and Archaeology) Download Food in Medieval England: Diet and Nutrition (Medieval History and Archaeology) PDF Download Food in Medieval England: Diet and Nutrition (Medieval History and Archaeology) Kindle Download Food in Medieval England: Diet and Nutrition (Medieval History and Archaeology) Android Download Food in Medieval England: Diet and Nutrition (Medieval History and Archaeology) Full Ebook Download Food in Medieval England: Diet and Nutrition (Medieval History and Archaeology) Free


11. Megiddo National Park, Israel

  • Duration: 329
  • Channel: travel
Megiddo National Park, Israel

Megiddo was a site of great importance in the ancient world. It guarded the western branch of a narrow pass and trade route connecting Egypt and Assyria. Because of its strategic location, Megiddo was the site of several historical battles. The site was inhabited from approximately 7000 BC to 586 BC (the same time as the destruction of the First Israelite Temple in Jerusalem by the Babylonians, and subsequent fall of Israelite rule and exile), though the first significant remains date to the Chalcolithic period (4500–3500 BC). Megiddo's Early Bronze Age I (3500–3100 BC) temple has been described by its excavators as "the most monumental single edifice so far uncovered in the EB I Levant and ranks among the largest structures of its time in the Near East."[2] The first wall was constructed in the Early Bronze Age II or III period. However, the town experienced a decline in the Early Bronze-Age IV period (2300–2000 BC), but the city was somewhat revived around 2000 BC. Following massive construction, the town reached its largest size in the Middle Bronze-Age, at 10–12 hectares. Though the city was subjugated by Thutmose III, it still prospered, and a massive and incredibly elaborate palace was constructed in the Late Bronze Age. The city was destroyed around 1150 BC, and the area was resettled by what some scholars have identified as early Israelites, before being replaced with an unwalled Philistine town. When the Israelites captured it, though, it became an important city, before being destroyed, possibly by Aramaean raiders, and rebuilt, this time as an administrative center for Tiglath-Pileser III's occupation of Samaria. However, its importance soon dwindled, and it was finally abandoned around 586 BC.[3] Since that time it has remained uninhabited, preserving ruins pre-dating 586 BC without settlements ever disturbing them. Instead, the town of Lajjun (not to be confused with the el-Lajjun archaeological site in Jordan) was built up near to the site, but without inhabiting or disturbing its remains. Megiddo is mentioned in Ancient Egyptian writings because one of Egypt's mighty kings, Thutmose III, waged war upon the city in 1478 BC. The battle is described in detail in the hieroglyphics found on the walls of his temple in Upper Egypt. Mentioned in the Bible as "Derekh HaYam" or "Way of the Sea," it became an important military artery of the Roman Empire and was known as the Via Maris.


12. Top 10 Tourist Attractions in Istanbul

  • Duration: 144
  • Channel: news
Top 10 Tourist Attractions in Istanbul

Top 10 Tourist Attractions in Istanbul 1.Hagia Sophia -The Hagia Sophia was once a house of worship that served several religions well over the centuries. It started out as a Greek Eastern Orthodox basilica that was home to the Patriarch of Constantinople when it was built in 537. For almost six decades in the 12th century it was a Roman Catholic church. It became a mosque in 1453, remaining that way until 1931, when it was closed. It reopened as a museum in 1935. 2.Blue Mosque - The Blue Mosque, built in the early 17th century, remains an active house of worship today. This means visitors need to time their visits carefully, as the mosque is closed to sightseers during the five daily prayer times for Muslims. All visitors must remove their shoes and women must cover their hair. This is a small price to pay for seeing its priceless treasures that include 20,000 ceramic tiles in various tulip designs and 200 stained glass windows, all with intricate designs. 3.Topkapi Palace -Topkapi Palace is one of the must-see attractions in Istanbul that combines history and stunning scenery in an experience that is not to be rushed. Rich in the history of the Ottoman Empire, the Topkapi Palace is surrounded by five kilometers (3.1 miles) of stone wall with 27 towers. Topkapi, which dates back to the 15th century, is situated on a hill overlooking the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorus and the Golden Horn. At one time it was an official royal residence of the Ottoman Empire sultans and seat of Turkish government, but is now a museum that is considered the largest and oldest palace in the world. 4. Grand Bazaar -Travelers who love to shop shouldn't miss out on a visit to the Grand Bazaar, with 5,000 shops making it one of the largest indoor marketplaces in the world. Receiving more than a quarter-million visitors a day, the bazaar features such items as jewelry, carpets that may or may not fly, spices, antiques and hand-painted ceramics. The bazaar dates back to 1461 and today is home to two mosques, four fountains, two hammams or steam baths, and the Cevahir Bedesten, 5.Suleymaniye Mosque -Visitors to the Suleymaniye Mosque say its beauty and peacefulness gives them an inspiring sense of spirituality. Located on the Third Hill of Istanbul, the mosque was ordered built in 1550 by the Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent. The mosque, indeed, is magnificent, blending the best of Islamic and Byzantine architecture. The mosque was extensively damaged over the years, including during World War I when a fire broke out while the gardens were used as a weapons depot. 6.Dolmabahce Palace -Luxurious, plush and beautiful are just some of the adjectives used to describe the Dolmabahce Palace, which has been compared to the Palace of Versailles. Built in the 19th century using 14 tons of gold leaf, Turkey's most glamorous palace blends traditional Ottoman architecture with the European styles of Neoclassical, Baroque and Rococo. 7.Basilica Cistern -The Basilica Cistern has been providing Istanbul residents with water since the sixth century when it was ordered built by the Roman Emperor Justinian I. A visit leaves travelers raving about the technology the ancient Romans used to build this architectural wonder that was very advanced for its day. The underground cistern, just a few steps away from the Blue Mosque, was built on the site of a basilica that was constructed in the third century. 8.Chora Church -The Chora Church may be a little bit off the beaten tourist path, but visitors say the beautiful Byzantine art is well worth the effort to get there. Magnificent mosaics and frescoes depict the life of Jesus and his mother, Mary. Known as the Church of the Holy Savior in Chora, it has been described as one of the most beautiful surviving works of Byzantine architecture. 9.Istanbul Archaeological Museum -One of the most important museums in Turkey, the Istanbul Archaeological Museum is actually three museums: the Archaeological Museum, the Ancient Orient Museum and the Tiled Kiosk Museum. The three museums combined contain more than 1 million objects from civilizations around the world. 10. Galata Tower -At 67 meters (219 feet) high, the Galata Tower rules over the Istanbul skyline, offering great views of the old city and its surroundings. The medieval stone tower, known as the Tower of Christ, was the tallest building in Istanbul when it was built in 1348. It still stands tall over Istanbul today. The tower has been modified over the centuries, at one time being used as an observation tower to spot fires. source-http://www.touropia.com/tourist-attractions-in-istanbul/ I, Sk Atar Ali hereby declare that all Images use to make this video is from Google Search www.google.com. I use Google Advanced Search to collect those images, usage rights: "free to use, share or modify, even commercially" section. Thank you.


13. [DOWNLOAD] EBOOK Christian Egypt: Coptic Art and Monuments Through Two Millennia Audiobook Free

  • Duration: 22
  • Channel: lifestyle
[DOWNLOAD] EBOOK Christian Egypt: Coptic Art and Monuments Through Two Millennia Audiobook Free

Click Here http://greatebook.org/?book=0814624065 Through haunting landscapes of the Nile Valley, oases and deserts, purely designed buildings, sumptuous paintings, beautiful illuminations, and exquisite fabrics, Christian Egypt transports the reader through the two-thousand year history and culture of Coptic Egypt.In Christian Egypt, Massimo Capuani invites students, scholars, and other interested readers to gain a greater appreciation of the richness of the Coptic civilization by traveling through ancient and medieval Coptic sites throughout Egypt, including the ruined monasteries of Saint Jeremiah (Saqqara) and Saint Apollo (Bawit).Capuani s comprehensive examination of the archeological studies and historical literature of Coptic Christian monasteries and churches are supported by over 170 black-and-white photographs, maps, and architectural illustrations. In addition, 105 full-color photographs provide a substantive record of monuments, architectural features, and wall paintings not seen elsewhere with such clarity and beauty. A chronology of Egypt from 332 B.C. to 1952 and an essay on the typology and architectural evolution of Egyptian churches add to the value of the work.Christian Egypt is enriched by the contribution of Otto F. A. Meinardus, who introduces readers to Coptic Egypt with a discussion of basic issues such as the patriarchs of Alexandria and theology of the World Church during the fourth and fifth centuries, the history of the Coptic Church, monasticism, the attitude of Egypt s rulers toward the Copts, and the Coptic renaissance during the pontificates of the patriarchs Cyril VI and Shenouda III.In a valuable, concise account, Marie-Helène Rutschowscaya elucidates several aspects of Coptic art: wall paintings, icons, illustrated manuscripts, as well as textiles. She offers readers a comprehensive picture of the artistic achievements of the Copts. Gawdat Gabra s thorough knowledge of current archeological activity and the most recent consensus regarding the dates and other questions concerning churches and monasteries enhance the store of information in Christian Egypt.Contents include Introduction," by Gawdat Gabra; *Coptic Christianity, Past and Present, - by Otto F. A. Meinardus; *The Arts Using Color, - by Marie-Helène Rutschowscaya; *Typology and Architectural Evolution of the Egyptian Churches Areas and Regions, - by Massimo Capuani; and *Areas and Regions, - by Massimo Capuani.Areas and regions included are The Region of the Delta, Nitria and Kellia, Scetis (Wadi al-Natrun), Cairo and Its Vicinity, Al-Fayyum and the Region of Beni Suef, The Eastern Desert, The Region of al-Minya, The Region of Asyut, The Region of Sohag and Akhmim, The Thebaid, Upper Egypt, and The Oases. Includes a chronology, bibliography, glossary, and index of places. Massimo Capuani, an engineer and researcher, is an expert in the history of the Eastern Christian Churches and has a thorough knowledge of the Middle Eastern and Mediterranean worlds; he has collected rich documentation about their cultural and artistic development.Otto F. A. Meinardus, Fellow of the Institute of Coptic Studies in Cairo and a member of the German Archaeological Society, is a doctor of philosophy and theology and a professor at the American University in Cairo and Athens College in Greece.Marie-Helène Rutschowscaya is head curator of the department of Egyptian antiquities at the Louvre and director of the Coptic section; she is also a professor at the ecole du Louvre.Gawdat Gabra, former director of the Coptic Museum in Cairo and member of the board of the Society of Coptic Archaeology, has a doctorate in Coptology from the University of Munster. He serves as a consultant in a number of projects of the American Research Center in Egypt and is chief editor of the Saint Mark Foundation for Coptic History Studies."


14. Illuminating the Middle Ages

  • Duration: 2433
  • Channel: news
Illuminating the Middle Ages

Historically, our understanding of the Middle Ages has tended to be coloured by the ‘Dark Age’ label, which casts this as a time of cultural famine and stagnation in contrast to the Renaissance and our Classical heritage. Yet medievalists insist the era has a wealth of thought, art and culture to rival that of any period in history, to such an extent that scholars now talk of the Carolingian, Ottoman and twelfth-century renaissances, emphasising the richness of an era once considered barren. Speakers include Dr Elizabeth Boyle, research fellow, St Edmund’s College, University of Cambridge; Albert Fenton, graduate, Anglo-Saxon, Norse, Celtic at Cambridge; Lindsay Johns, writer, broadcaster and cultural commentator, Daily Mail online; Dr Levi Roach, lecturer of Medieval History, University of Exeter.


15. The beautiful town of Plovdiv, Bulgaria - European Capital of Culture 2019

  • Duration: 108
  • Channel: school
The beautiful town of Plovdiv, Bulgaria - European Capital of Culture 2019

Plovdiv is the second-largest city in Bulgaria, with a city population of 341,567 as of 2015 and 675,586 in the greater metropolitan area. It is an important economic, transport, cultural, and educational center. There is evidence of habitation in Plovdiv dating back to the 6th millennium BCE, when the first Neolithic settlements were established; it is said to be one of the oldest cities in Europe. During most of its recorded history, Plovdiv was known in the West by the name Philippopolis after Philip II of Macedon conquered the city in the 4th century BCE. The city was originally a Thracian settlement and subsequently was invaded by Persians, Greeks, Celts, Romans, Goths, Huns, Bulgars, Slavs, Rus people, Crusaders, and Turks. On January 4, 1878, Plovdiv was liberated from Ottoman rule by the Russian army. It remained within the borders of Bulgaria until July of the same year, when it became the capital of the autonomous Ottoman region of Eastern Rumelia. In 1885, Plovdiv and Eastern Rumelia joined Bulgaria. Plovdiv is situated in a fertile region of south-central Bulgaria on the two banks of the Maritsa River. The city has historically developed on seven syenite hills, some of which are 250 metres high. Because of these hills, Plovdiv is often referred to in Bulgaria as "The City of the Seven Hills". Plovdiv is host to a huge variety of cultural events such as the International Fair Plovdiv, the international theatrical festival "A stage on a crossroad", the TV festival "The golden chest," and many more novel festivals, such as Night/Plovdiv in September, Kapana Fest, and Opera Open. There are many preserved ruins such as the ancient Plovdiv Roman theatre, a Roman odeon, a Roman aqueduct, the Plovdiv Roman Stadium, the archaeological complex Eirene, and others. The oldest American educational institution outside the United States, the American College of Sofia, was founded in Plovdiv in 1860 and later moved to Sofia. On September 5, 2014, Plovdiv was selected as the Bulgarian host of the European Capital of Culture 2019. This happened with the help of the Municipal Foundation "Plovdiv 2019″, a non-government organization, which was established in 2011 by Plovdiv's City Council whose main objectives were to develop and to prepare Plovdiv's bid book for European Capital of Culture in 2019.


16. Jordan- The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

  • Duration: 121
  • Channel: travel
Jordan-  The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Jordan officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (Arabic: المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) and also known as the JK (short for The Jordanian Kingdom), is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan in Western Asia. It borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the east, Syria to the north and West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing control of the Dead Sea. Jordan's only port is at its southern tip, at the Gulf of Aqaba, which is shared with Israel, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia. Much of Jordan is covered by the Arabian Desert. However, the north-western part of Jordan is part of the Fertile Crescent. The capital city is Amman. During its history, Jordan has seen numerous civilizations, including those of the Ancient Near East with the Canaanite and later other Semitic peoples such as the Edomites, and the Moabites. Other civilizations possessing political sovereignty and influence in Jordan were: Akkadian, Assyrian, Israelite/Judean, Babylonian, and Persian empires. The lands of Jordan were for a time under the rule of Pharaonic Egypt, composed part of the greater Kingdom of Israel (including the later Judaean Kingdom, Hasmonaen Kingdom of Israel and Herodian Dynasty), and notably, the region of Jordan also gave birth to the Nabataean civilization which left rich archaeological remains at Petra, one of the New Seven Wonders of the World located in the Ma'an Governorate. Cultures further west also left their mark, such as the Macedonian/Greek/Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman empires. Since the seventh century, the area has been under the primary rule of Muslim and Arab cultures, with the exceptions briefly for the area in Western Jordan during the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, and for the entire region during the early-mid twentieth century under British rule which led to Jordan's establishment as an autonomous state. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a constitutional monarchy with representative government. The reigning monarch is the chief executive and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The king exercises his executive authority through the prime ministers and the Council of Ministers, or cabinet. The cabinet, meanwhile, is responsible before the democratically elected House of Deputies which, along with the House of Notables (Senate), constitutes the legislative branch of the government. The judicial branch is an independent branch of the government. Modern Jordan is predominantly urbanized. Jordan is classified as a country of "high human development" by the 2010 Human Development Report.[8] Furthermore, The Kingdom has been classified as an emerging market with a free market economy by the CIA World Fact Book. It has more Free Trade Agreements than any other country in the region. It has a "pro-Western" regime with very close relations with the United Kingdom and the United States. It also became a major non-NATO ally of the United States in 1996, and is one of only two nations in the region, the other being Egypt, that have diplomatic relations with Israel.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] It is a founding member of the Arab League,[17] the WTO,[18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] the AFESD,[26] the Arab Parliament,[27] the AIDMO, the AMF,[28] the IMF,[29][30] the International Criminal Court,[31] the UNHRC,[32] the GAFTA, the ESCWA,[33] the ENP[34][35][36] and the United Nations.[37] Jordan is also currently undergoing close integration with the European Union and the Gulf Cooperation Council. Jordan enjoys "advanced status" with the European Union. SOURCE : WIKIPEDIA 


17. 10 Unsolved Mysteries of Romania

  • Duration: 501
  • Channel: tv
10 Unsolved Mysteries of Romania

These are the top 10 most mysterious things in Romania from the location of Draculas tomb and his creepy castle to Baciu Forest! \r\rSubscribe to American Eye \r\r4. The Buzau Mountains Mystery\rThe Buzau Mountains are a beautiful place to see in Romania, but by no means does that not make them mysterious. If you dare to walk through the mountains here, you may come across, these strange cave complexes. Whats strange about this place, is that the caves contain a mysterious language encarved on the walls that no one is quite able to decipher. The walls contain several messages that many people are dying to know what they mean! Theres also depictions of mysterious beings. Some believe these carvings come from the Luana Kingdom which little is known about. Tales of people who lived in this kingdom say that they had access to magical water that could heal anyone. Could this be their language written on the wall? The tales ends with the kingdom dying out due to the sun exploding. What might this have been a reference too? Others believe its simply from christian missionaries who settled on romanian land around 300 AD. But it still remains a mystery exly who wrote it. \r\r3. 36,000 Year Old Footprints\rHow long exly have people been living in this mysterious land? Archaeological discoveries seem to prove the existence of a family of 6 or 7 individuals with at least one child living in the caves of the Carpathian Mountains. Could these have possibly been some of Europes first inhabitants as well? Radiocarbon dating of two bear fossils below the footprints suggest that they were indeed 36,000 years old. How these footprints were able to survive the test of time is still somewhat remarkable. Here in this photo, you see some bear scratchings, proving humans werent the only ones to inhabit the caves. The findings were sufficient enough to be documented into a peer review journal. Who exly were the mysterious people to once live here and where did they go? Were they attacked by a bear? The timeline seems to put them as some of the earliest home sapians but further research is needed.\r\r2. Where is Draculas Tomb\rPeople who are fascinated with Romanias history are often intrigued with Count Dracula. The vampire we know from s is a fictional charer but the real person he was named after, also known as, Vlad the Impaler, ually did have a taste for blood. He was born in 1431 in the Sighisoara,Romania, in this ordinary house, in the central region of Transylvania. He didnt ually suck the blood from his victims but he was known to dip bread into buckets of blood from the people he impaled and would eat a meal while watching his victims being executed. The search for the grave of dracula has remained a mystery, thats bothered many people. Some claim he was buried in the Snagov Monastery on an island near the capital of Bucharest. when people came across it in the 1930, it appeared as though he was no longer there, possibly moving on his own. People still come to the altar at this monastery to pay their respects. Others claim he was buried in Naples, Italy but this was quickly debunked. Historians believe he was beheaded by an Ottoman assassin and as a cruel twist of irony, had his head impaled on a stake. After it was preserved in honey and presented to the Sultan. Hard to come back to life after that. His final resting place is unknown.\r\r1.Mystery of Draculas True Castle\rVampires lovers from all around the world flock to the Bran Castle in Transylvania and is extremely popular for the 500,000 people per year who visit it. But are they being mislead? This picturesque fortress is positioned on the top of a cliff in Brasov County. But the true mystery about this place is that people still arent really too sure if Vlad the Impaler even lived here! Theres no historical evidence of him ever residing at Bran Castle. Historians know the true residence was at Poenari on a remote clifftop thats much less easy on the eyes and was constructed by slaves. He even constructed a different palace/fortress to defend against the Ottomans later on in his life. Many tourists are tricked into believing that he resided at Bran Castle, when the reality is that he might have just visited it a couple of times. It would also be extremely difficult for tourists to access the real lair of Dracula that requires a mass hike. Nonetheless, its still a pretty creepy place to go when you take a look at the artwork and the armor on the walls. Did Vlad the Impaler eat blood soaked blood at this table in Castle Bran? What other gruesome atrocities he possibly committed at his residence at Poenari is still quite puzzling.


18. Jordan (clips from Don't Forget Your Passport)

  • Duration: 371
  • Channel: travel
Jordan (clips from Don't Forget Your Passport)

Visit http://www.yummydvd.com or http://stores.ebay.com/Yummy-DVD-Home-Entertainment to purchase. David Rocco spends ten days traveling exotic Jordan in the Middle East. He starts his trip in the capital of Amman. David then heads to the Dead Sea for a behind the scenes look at an archaeological dig believed to be the Baptism site of Jesus Christ. He wanders the roman ruins in Jerash, the lost city of Petra, and ancient crusader castles. David ends his journey in the Wadi Rum desert, snacking on sheep's eye with the Bedouin tribes. He winds down with a camel ride retracing the steps of Lawrence of Arabia who led the famous Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Turks in 1917. Don't Forget Your Passport is your ticket to an adventurous worldwide tour, hosted by a group of energetic and curious world travelers from around the globe. Awesome cinematography provides the backdrop for those spur-of-the-moment, intriguing, crazy yet absolutely real situations that only the most intrepid travellers find themselves in. Living with the cave-dwelling Berber tribes of North Tunisia, hiking through the polar cap villages of Greenland, or being caught in the middle of a street brawl in Guatemala: Don't Forget Your Passportis fearless and fun!


19. Jordan a Biblical land

  • Duration: 452
  • Channel: travel
Jordan a Biblical land

Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, is a country in the Middle East. It shares control of the Dead Sea with Israel. Jordan's only port is at its southern tip, at the Red Sea's Gulf of Aquaba, which it shares with Israel, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia. Much of Jordan is covered by the Arabian Desert. However, the north-western part of Jordan is part of the Ancient Fertile Crescent. The capital city is Amman. During its history, Jordan has seen numerous civilizations, including such ancient eastern ones as the Canaanite and later other Semitic peoples such as the Edomites, and the Moabites. Other civilizations possessing political sovereignty and influence in Jordan were: Akkadian, Assyrian, Judean, Babylonian, and Persian empires. Jordan was for a time part of Pharaonic Egypt, the Hasmonean Dynasty of the Maccabees, and also spawned the native Nabatean civilization which left rich archaeological remains at Petra, one of the New Seven Wonders of the World located in the Ma'an Governorate. Cultures from the west also left their mark, such as the Macedonian, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Turkish empires. Since the seventh century the area has been under Muslim and Arab cultures, with the exception of a brief period when the west of the area formed part of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and a short time under British rule. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a constitutional monarchy with representative government. The reigning monarch is the head of state, the chief executive and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The king exercises his executive authority through the prime ministers and the Council of Ministers, or cabinet. The cabinet, meanwhile, is responsible before the democratically elected House of Deputies which, along with the House of Notables (Senate), constitutes the legislative branch of the government. The judicial branch is an independent branch of the government. Jordan is a modern Arab nation, its population is 92% Sunni Muslim with a small Christian minority. Jordanian society is predominantly urbanized. Jordan is classified as an emerging market with a free market economy by the CIA World Fact Book. Jordan has more Free Trade Agreements than any other country in the Arab World. Jordan is a pro-Western regime with very close relations with the United States and the United Kingdom. It became a major non-NATO ally in 1996, and is one of only two Arab nations, the other being Egypt, that have diplomatic relations with Israel. It is a founding member of the Arab League,the WTO, the AFESD, the Arab Parliament, the AIDMO, the AMF, the IMF, the International Criminal Court, the UNHRC, the GAFTA, the ESCWA, the ENP and the United Nations. Jordan is also currently undergoing close integration with the European Union and the Gulf Cooperation Council. Jordan expects to receive "advanced status" with the EU by 2011. ( source Wikipedia ) 


20. 10 Unsolved Mysteries of Romania

  • Duration: 501
  • Channel: tv
10 Unsolved Mysteries of Romania

These are the top 10 most mysterious things in Romania from the location of Draculas tomb and his creepy castle to Baciu Forest! \r\rSubscribe to American Eye \r\r4. The Buzau Mountains Mystery\rThe Buzau Mountains are a beautiful place to see in Romania, but by no means does that not make them mysterious. If you dare to walk through the mountains here, you may come across, these strange cave complexes. Whats strange about this place, is that the caves contain a mysterious language encarved on the walls that no one is quite able to decipher. The walls contain several messages that many people are dying to know what they mean! Theres also depictions of mysterious beings. Some believe these carvings come from the Luana Kingdom which little is known about. Tales of people who lived in this kingdom say that they had access to magical water that could heal anyone. Could this be their language written on the wall? The tales ends with the kingdom dying out due to the sun exploding. What might this have been a reference too? Others believe its simply from christian missionaries who settled on romanian land around 300 AD. But it still remains a mystery exly who wrote it. \r\r3. 36,000 Year Old Footprints\rHow long exly have people been living in this mysterious land? Archaeological discoveries seem to prove the existence of a family of 6 or 7 individuals with at least one child living in the caves of the Carpathian Mountains. Could these have possibly been some of Europes first inhabitants as well? Radiocarbon dating of two bear fossils below the footprints suggest that they were indeed 36,000 years old. How these footprints were able to survive the test of time is still somewhat remarkable. Here in this photo, you see some bear scratchings, proving humans werent the only ones to inhabit the caves. The findings were sufficient enough to be documented into a peer review journal. Who exly were the mysterious people to once live here and where did they go? Were they attacked by a bear? The timeline seems to put them as some of the earliest home sapians but further research is needed.\r\r2. Where is Draculas Tomb\rPeople who are fascinated with Romanias history are often intrigued with Count Dracula. The vampire we know from s is a fictional charer but the real person he was named after, also known as, Vlad the Impaler, ually did have a taste for blood. He was born in 1431 in the Sighisoara,Romania, in this ordinary house, in the central region of Transylvania. He didnt ually suck the blood from his victims but he was known to dip bread into buckets of blood from the people he impaled and would eat a meal while watching his victims being executed. The search for the grave of dracula has remained a mystery, thats bothered many people. Some claim he was buried in the Snagov Monastery on an island near the capital of Bucharest. when people came across it in the 1930, it appeared as though he was no longer there, possibly moving on his own. People still come to the altar at this monastery to pay their respects. Others claim he was buried in Naples, Italy but this was quickly debunked. Historians believe he was beheaded by an Ottoman assassin and as a cruel twist of irony, had his head impaled on a stake. After it was preserved in honey and presented to the Sultan. Hard to come back to life after that. His final resting place is unknown.\r\r1.Mystery of Draculas True Castle\rVampires lovers from all around the world flock to the Bran Castle in Transylvania and is extremely popular for the 500,000 people per year who visit it. But are they being mislead? This picturesque fortress is positioned on the top of a cliff in Brasov County. But the true mystery about this place is that people still arent really too sure if Vlad the Impaler even lived here! Theres no historical evidence of him ever residing at Bran Castle. Historians know the true residence was at Poenari on a remote clifftop thats much less easy on the eyes and was constructed by slaves. He even constructed a different palace/fortress to defend against the Ottomans later on in his life. Many tourists are tricked into believing that he resided at Bran Castle, when the reality is that he might have just visited it a couple of times. It would also be extremely difficult for tourists to access the real lair of Dracula that requires a mass hike. Nonetheless, its still a pretty creepy place to go when you take a look at the artwork and the armor on the walls. Did Vlad the Impaler eat blood soaked blood at this table in Castle Bran? What other gruesome atrocities he possibly committed at his residence at Poenari is still quite puzzling.